martes, 4 de enero de 2011

EFEMERIDES

PUBLICADO PARA HOY 5 DE ENERO


Guerra entre la Confederación Perú-Boliviana y Chile

1969 Nació Marilyn Manson, cantante y artista estadounidense.
1938 Nació Juan Carlos I, rey de España.
1855 Nació King Camp Gillette, inventor de la hoja de afeitar.

1936 Fallece Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, escritor español.
1477 Fallece Carlos el Temerario, duque de Borgoña.
1066 Fallece Eduardo el Confesor, rey de Inglaterra.

San Telesforo
Santa Emiliana

Efemérides del día, efemérides de la semana, efemérides del año. Cuándo nació? Donde nació? Donde murió? Cuando murió? Cómo murió?. Santoral de hoy, todos los Santos, las Santas, las Beatas...

2002 Científicos japoneses anuncian la creación del primer ojo artificial.
1998 La NASA envía una nave a la Luna para desvelar el misterio de su cara oculta.
1985 Nacen en un hospital de París los primeros trillizos europeos concebidos por medio de la fecundación in vitro.
1978 Aprobada la preautonomía de Euskadi.
1977 En España se suprime el Tribunal de Orden Público, se crea la Audiencia Nacional y se deroga el decreto ley sobre el terrorismo.
1955 Se crea oficialmente la Copa de Campeones de Europa.
1940 Se realiza la primera demostración de radio Frecuencia Modulada (FM).
1930 El gobierno soviético anuncia la creación de los koljoses (cooperativas agrícolas de producción).
1839 Combate de Buin, en la Guerra entre la Confederación Perú-Boliviana y Chile.
1813 Las Cortes de Cádiz suprimen el Tribunal de la Inquisición tanto en España como en América.
1494 Cristóbal Colón funda La Isabela, primera población española en América.

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Juan Carlos I proclamación en cortes



Juan Carlos I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King of Spain (more)
Reign 22 November 1975 – present
(&000000000000003500000035 years, &000000000000004300000043 days)
Anointment 27 November 1975(1975-11-27) (aged 37)
Predecessor Francisco Franco
Heir apparent Felipe, Prince of Asturias
Prime Ministers See list[show]Carlos Arias-Navarro
Fernando de Santiago y Díaz
Adolfo Suárez
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo
Felipe González
José María Aznar
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero

Consort Sophia of Greece and Denmark
Issue
Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo
Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca
Felipe, Prince of Asturias
Full name
Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María
House House of Bourbon[1][2]
Father Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona
Mother Princess Maria Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Born 5 January 1938 (1938-01-05) (age 72)
Rome, Italy
Signature
Religion Roman Catholic

Spanish Royal Family

HM The King
HM The Queen

HRH The Prince of Asturias
HRH The Princess of Asturias
HRH Infanta Leonor
HRH Infanta Sofía
HRH The Duchess of Lugo
HRH The Duchess of Palma de Mallorca
HE The Duke of Palma de Mallorca
Extended royal family[show]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRH The Duchess of Badajoz

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRH The Duchess of Soria
HE The Duke of Soria

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRH The Duke of Calabria
HRH The Duchess of CalabriaHRH The Duchess Dowager of Calabria
v • d • e

Royal styles of
King Juan Carlos

Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire


Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born in Rome, 5 January 1938) is the reigning King of Spain.[3]

On 22 November 1975, two days after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos was designated King according to the law of succession promulgated by Franco. The Spanish throne had been vacant for thirty eight years in 1969 when Franco named Juan Carlos as the next head of state.[4] The Spanish Constitution of 1978, voted in referendum, acknowledges him expressly as King of Spain. The Spanish Constitution, Title II: the Crown, Article 56, Subsection 1, affirms the role of the Spanish monarch as the personification and embodiment of the Spanish nation, a symbol of Spain's enduring unity and permanence; and as such, the monarch is the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces in a system known in Spanish as "monarquía parlamentaria" (parliamentary monarchy).[5][6]

King Juan Carlos successfully oversaw the transition of Spain from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy.

Juan Carlos married Sophia of Greece and Denmark in 1962. The couple have three children and eight grandchildren.

Polls from 2000 show that he is widely approved of by Spaniards.[7] According to the Spanish Constitution, the monarch is also instrumental in promoting Ibero-American relations, the "nations of its historical community".[5][6] In this capacity, the King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008 he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America.[8]


Early lifeJuan Carlos of Spain was born to the Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona and the Princess María Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, Italy, where his grandfather, King Alfonso XIII and other members of the Spanish royal family had settled following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931. His early life was dictated largely by the political concerns of his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow this. He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He then joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza.

Juan Carlos has two sisters and one brother: Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz (born 1936), and Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria (born 1939) and his younger brother Infante Alfonso.

In March 1956, Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, Portugal. The Spanish Embassy in Portugal issued an official communiqué:[9]

Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious service, during which he had received holy communion.
Very quickly, however, rumours appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired. Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother, said that Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware that the pistol was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan Carlos, also said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was loaded, and adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall hitting Alfonso in the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan Carlos in the arm causing him to fire the pistol.[10]

In 1957 Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Pontevedra and another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1961 he graduated from the Complutense University[citation needed]. He then went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela, and began carrying out official engagements.

Prince of Spain, 1969-1975The dictatorial regime of Francisco Franco had come to power during the Spanish Civil War, which had pitted democrats, anarchists, socialists, and Communists supported in part by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and by international volunteers, against conservatives, monarchists, nationalists, and fascists, with the latter group ultimately emerging successful with the support of neighbouring Portugal and the major European Axis powers of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Despite his alliance with monarchists, Franco was not eager to restore the deposed Spanish monarchy once in power, preferring to head a regime with himself as head of state for life. Though Franco's partisan supporters generally accepted this arrangement for the present, much debate quickly ensued over who would replace Franco upon his death. The far right factions demanded the return of a hardline absolute monarchy, and eventually Franco agreed that his successor would be a monarch. Franco, a Carlist by some accounts, had no intention of restoring the constitutional form of monarchy known during the 19th Century or the republican form of government created by the Spanish Constitution of 1931.

The heir to the throne of Spain was Juan de Borbón (Count of Barcelona), the son of the late Alfonso XIII. However, General Franco viewed the heir with extreme suspicion, believing him to be a liberal who was opposed to his regime. Franco then considered giving the Spanish throne to Juan Carlos's cousin Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz. Alfonso was known to be an ardent Francoist and would marry Franco's granddaughter, Doña María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco in 1972. In response, Juan Carlos started to use his second name Carlos to assert his claim to the heritage of the Carlist branch of his family.

Ultimately, Franco decided to skip a generation and name Prince Juan Carlos as his personal successor. Franco hoped the young Prince could be groomed to take over the nation while still maintaining the ultraconservative nature of his regime. In 1969, Juan Carlos was officially designated heir and was given the new title of Prince of Spain (not the traditional Prince of Asturias). As a condition of being named heir-apparent, he had to swear loyalty to Franco's Movimiento Nacional, which he did with little outward hesitation.

Juan Carlos met and consulted Franco many times while heir apparent and often took part in official and ceremonial state functions alongside the dictator, much to the anger of hardline republicans and more moderate liberals, who had hoped that Franco's death would bring in an era of reform. During those years, Juan Carlos publicly supported Franco's regime. However, as the years progressed, Juan Carlos began meeting with political opposition leaders and exiles, who were fighting to bring liberal reform to the country. He also had secret conversations with his father over the phone. Franco, for his part, remained largely oblivious to the prince's actions and denied allegations that Juan Carlos was in any way disloyal to his vision of the regime.

During periods of Franco's temporary incapacity in 1974 and 1975 Juan Carlos was acting head of state. Near death, on 30 October 1975, Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos. On 22 November, following Franco's death, the Cortes Generales proclaimed Juan Carlos King of Spain and on 27 November, Juan Carlos was anointed king in a ceremony called Holy Spirit Mass, which was the equivalent of a coronation, at the Jerónimos Church in Madrid. He opted not to call himself John III or Charles V, but Juan Carlos I.

Restoration of the monarchy

Royal trips of King Juan Carlos I from 1975 until today.After dictator Franco's death, King Juan Carlos I quickly instituted reforms, to the great displeasure of Falangist and conservative (monarchist) elements, especially in the military, who had expected him to maintain the authoritarian state. He appointed Adolfo Suárez, a former leader of the Movimiento Nacional, as Prime Minister of Spain.


Juan Carlos greeting Nicolae Ceauşescu, President of Romania, during his visit to Spain in 1979On 20 May 1977, the leader of the only recently legalized Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) Felipe González, accompanied by Javier Solana, visited Juan Carlos in the Zarzuela Palace. The event represented a key endorsement of the monarchy from Spain's political left, who had been historically republican. Left-wing support for the monarchy grew when the Communist Party of Spain was legalized shortly thereafter, a move Juan Carlos had pressed for, despite enormous right-wing military opposition at that time, during the Cold War.

On 15 June 1977, Spain held its first post-Franco democratic elections. In 1978, a new Constitution was promulgated that acknowledged Juan Carlos as rightful heir of the Spanish dynasty and King; specifically, Title II, Section 57 asserted Juan Carlos' right to the throne of Spain by dynastic succession in the Borbón tradition, as "the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty" rather than as the designated successor of Franco.[5][11] The Constitution was passed by the democratically elected Constituent Cortes, ratified by the people in a referendum (6 December) and then signed into law by the King before a solemn meeting of the Cortes.

Further legitimacy had been restored to Juan Carlos´ position on 14 May 1977, when his father, Don Juan (whom many monarchists had recognized as the legitimate, exiled King of Spain during the Franco era), formally renounced his claim to the Throne and recognized his son as the sole head of the Spanish Royal House, transferring to him the historical heritage of the Spanish monarchy, thus making Juan Carlos both the de facto and the de jure (rightful) King in the eyes of the traditional monarchists. Juan Carlos, who had already been King since Franco's death, gave an acceptance address after his father's resignation speech and thanked him by confirming the title of Count of Barcelona that Don Juan had assumed in exile. It was a sovereign title associated to the crown.

An attempted military coup, known as 23-F, occurred on 23 February 1981. In this coup the Cortes were seized by members of the Guardia Civil in the parliamentary chamber. According to the widely accepted version, the coup ended up being thwarted by the public television broadcast by the king, calling for unambiguous support for the legitimate democratic government. In the hours before his speech, he had personally called many senior military figures to tell them that he was opposed to the coup and that they had to defend the democratic government.

When Juan Carlos became king, Communist leader Santiago Carrillo nicknamed him Juan Carlos the Brief, predicting that the monarchy would soon be swept away with the other remnants of the Franco era. After the collapse of the attempted coup mentioned above, however, in an emotional statement, Carrillo told television viewers: "God save the king." The Communist leader also remarked: "Today, we are all monarchists." If public support for the monarchy among democrats and leftists before 1981 had been limited, following the king's handling of the coup, it became significantly greater. According to a poll in the newspaper El Mundo in November 2005, 77.5% of Spaniards thought Juan Carlos was "good or very good", 15.4% "not so good", and only 7.1% "bad or very bad". Even so, the issue of the monarchy re-emerged on 28 September 2007 as photos of the king were burnt in public in Catalonia by relatively small groups of protesters wanting the restoration of the Republic.[12]

In July 2000, Juan Carlos was the target of an enraged protester (and some think a possible royal assassin) when Juan María Fernández y Krohn,[13] who had previously tried to take the life of Pope John Paul II, began shouting "Murderer! Murderer!" at the king (in reference to the adolescent shooting of the king's younger brother) and then approached him in a very threatening manner.

Role in contemporary Spanish politicsThe election of socialist leader Felipe González to the Spanish prime ministership in 1982 marked the effective end of the King's active involvement in Spanish politics. González would govern for over a decade, and his administration helped consolidate the democratic gains and thus maintained the stability of the nation. While the king is generally reckoned as having a merely ceremonial role in politics, he commands great moral authority as an essential symbol of the country's unity.

Under the constitution, the King has immunity from prosecution in matters relating to his official duties. This is so because every act of the King as such (and not as a citizen) needs to be undersigned by a government official, thus making the undersigner responsible instead of the king. Offences against the honour of the Royal Family are specially protected by the Spanish Penal Code. Under this protection, Basque independentist Arnaldo Otegi[14] and cartoonists from El Jueves were tried and punished.

The King gives an annual speech to the nation on Christmas Eve. He is the commander-in-chief of the Spanish armed forces.

When the media asked Juan Carlos in 2005 if he would endorse the bill legalizing gay marriage that was then being debated in the Cortes Generales, he answered "Soy el Rey de España y no el de Bélgica" ("I am the King of Spain, not of Belgium") – a reference to King Baudouin I of Belgium, who refused to sign the Belgian law legalising abortion.[15] The King gave his Royal Assent to Law 13/2005 on 1 July 2005; the law legalizing gay marriage was gazetted in the Boletín Oficial del Estado on 2 July, and came into effect on 3 July.[16]


The King (center) standing with the presidents of all the other Iberoamerican Nations present at the XVIII Ibero-American Summit.In November 2007 at the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago de Chile, during a heated exchange, Juan Carlos interrupted Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and asked him, "¿Por qué no te callas?" ("Why don't you shut up?"). Chávez had been interrupting the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, while the latter was defending his predecessor and political opponent, José María Aznar, after Chávez had referred to Aznar as a fascist and "less human than snakes". The King shortly afterwards left the hall when President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua accused Spain of intervention in his country's elections and complained about some Spanish energy companies working in Nicaragua.This was an unprecedented diplomatic incident and a rare display of public anger by the King.

Popularity in Portugal and the Iberian Union questionA poll from 2006 taken in Portugal shows that 28% of the Portuguese were in favour of an Iberian Union and wished to become Spanish having Juan Carlos I as their King (this must also be understood as a sign of the current discontentment with local politicians), and followed attentively the Spanish Royal Family's life, while a similar poll taken in Spain states that 45,7% of the Spanish also wish an Iberian Union, a number that rises to 50,8% in ages between 18 and 24.[19]

Family and private life

King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía with U.S. President George W. Bush and Laura Bush (2001).Juan Carlos was married in Athens at the Church of Saint Dennis on 14 May 1962, to HRH Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Paul. She was Greek Orthodox but converted to Roman Catholicism in order to become Spain's queen. They have two daughters and a son.


In 1972, Juan Carlos, a keen sailor, competed in the Dragon class event at the Olympic Games, though he did not win any medals. In their summer holidays, the whole family meets in Marivent Palace (Palma de Mallorca) and the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions. The king has manned the Bribón series of yachts. In winter, they usually go skiing in Baqueira-Beret and Candanchú (Pyrenees), where the king has occasionally ended with a broken leg.

Juan Carlos also enjoys bear hunting. In October 2004, he angered environmental activists by killing nine bears (of which one was a pregnant female) in central Romania.[20] In August 2006, it is alleged that Juan Carlos shot a drunken tame bear (Mitrofan) during a private hunting trip to Russia. The Office of the Spanish Monarchy denies this claim, which was made by the Russian regional authorities.[21]

Juan Carlos and Sophia are fluent in several languages. They both speak Spanish, English, and French. The king speaks fluent Italian and Portuguese. Unlike the queen, Juan Carlos does not speak German, nor her native language, Greek, a fact he regrets.

Juan Carlos is an amateur radio operator and holds the call sign EA0JC. His fondness of incognito motorbike riding has raised urban legends of people finding him on lonely roads.

Juan Carlos is member of the World Scout Foundation.[22]

Health

The king is featured on the Spanish 1 and 2 euro coinsA benign tumour was removed from King Juan Carlos’ lung in an operation carried out in the "Hospital Clínic" of Barcelona on Saturday 8 May 2010. The 72 year old Monarch was expected to be allowed home in three or four days, and able to renew full physical activity in a fortnight. The operation came as a result of the King’s latest annual check-up, and doctors said the procedure went well and Juan Carlos would not need any further follow-up treatment. At a press convention the operating team said that the 17-19mm tumour which had been removed under a general anaesthetic from the right lung contained no malignant cells. ‘This is good news’, said doctor Laureano Molins, who had directed the operation.

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit] TitlesMain articles: List of titles and honours of Juan Carlos I of Spain and List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown

The Coat of arms of the King of Spain.
The Standard of the King of Spain.The current Spanish constitution refers to the monarchy as "the Crown of Spain" and the constitutional title of the monarch is simply Rey/Reina de España: that is, "king/queen of Spain". However, the constitution allows for the use of other historic titles pertaining to the Spanish monarchy, without specifying them. A decree promulgated 6 November 1987 at the Council of Ministers regulates the titles further, and on that basis the monarch of Spain has a right to use ("may use") those other titles appertaining to the Crown. Contrary to some belief, the long titulary that contains the list of over 20 kingdoms, etc., is not in state use, nor is it used in Spanish diplomacy. In fact, it has never been in use in that form, as "Spain" was never a part of the list in pre-1837 era when the long list was officially used.

This feudal style was last used officially in 1836, in the titulary of Isabella II of Spain before she became constitutional Queen.

Juan Carlos's titles include that of King of Jerusalem, as successor to the royal family of Naples.


Other honours

The king has been the recipient of numerous honorary degrees,[26] including from University of Santo Tomas, Philippines;[26] Harvard University;[26] Southern Methodist University [26] (where, in 2001, he formally opened the Meadows Museum, housing the largest collection of Spanish art outside Spain), and Georgetown University.[26] Juan Carlos also has received honorary Doctor of Laws degrees from New York University,[26] the University of Cambridge [26] and the University of Utrecht [26] in the Netherlands (25 October 2001).[27]

In 1997, NYU opened the King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center (to promote research and teaching on Spain and the Spanish-speaking world) in the historic Judson Hall and adjacent buildings on Washington Square in New York City. He is also a member of the Sons of the American Revolution organization.[28] In 1996 he received the Jean Monnet award of the Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe for his work on integrating Spain into the European Community.[29] Juan Carlos I Park, the main municipal park of Madrid, was named after the king.[30] The Spanish Antarctic Base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for King Juan Carlos I of Spain.

Ancestors

Main article: Ancestry of Juan Carlos I of Spain
King Juan Carlos is a direct descendant of many famous European rulers from different countries. He is a descendant of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom through his grandmother, Victoria Eugenie; of Louis XIV of France through the House of Bourbon; of the Emperor Charles V, who belonged to the Habsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire; and of the House of Savoy of Italy. The Capetian dynasty to which he belongs is the oldest in Europe. Some of his distant ancestors include Joan, Duchess of Burgundy and queen consort of Philip VI of France, and Lorenzo de' Medici, the Florentine statesman better known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico). He is a descendant of Maria Leszczyńska, daughter of King Stanislaus Leszczynski of Poland, and Queen Consort of France through an unbroken line of Bourbon princesses who married within the Bourbon house. He's also a descendant of Pelagius, first king (718-737 a.C) during the Reconquista, as descendant of the kings of Castile and Leon, and through him the Visigothic kings. The King is a direct descendent of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.



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