lunes, 31 de octubre de 2011





California Pacific Coast - discover the beauty - YouTube Travel

Uploaded by JCVdude on Sep 24, 2011

You don't need millions of dollars worth of add campaign selling the image of California to a world wide audience, just show what California is like and what it's about. No gimmicks, actors or staged shots. This is the California coast on one random day. Beautiful and the people at the end sitting on the wall, that's just the way it is, what we found.

music by Luigi Alessi 01 - Verso, 09 - Immaginations,06 - Two Heaven and 02 - Here For You




Communist tortures in Latvia 1940-1941,
killing many people in Baltic states.


The Revolutionary Holocaust - Part 1

Uploaded by CommieCrematorium on Jan 23, 2010

Communism and Socialism, the ever present danger to humanity, has not been eliminated it has just been morphed into different political movements like Environmentalism, Global Warming and Mainstream Political Parties. These insidious criminals have not given up trying to place all of humanity under their totalitarian rule.





If you've been getting e -mails with subject lines like "Bloody Self-Justice," "Multi-Kulturel=Multi-Kriminell," or Turkey in the EU -- with a short message saying "read for yourself" and links you're supposed to follow -- then you're the victim of a Sober.Q worm sent to infect your computer by the NPD (German National Party), a neo-Nazi, anti-Semitic party that has scored heavily in some parts of the country by preaching racist, anti-immigrant xenophobia. So reports Der Spiegal Online this morning. This brown-shirted worm is attacking computers all over the planet.

Last year, the NPD shook Germany when it got a frightening 9.2% in elections in Saxony, winning representation in the parliament there for the first time ever. This January, the dozen NPD legislators in Saxony caused an international scandal when they disrupted a moment of silence in the parliament to mark the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz death camp by Allied forces during World War II -- the NPDers walked out, and made statements belittling the Holocaust that killed 6 million Jews. (The NPD's leaders frequently make anti-Semitic remarks).

The racist spam that has flooded inboxes from Australia to Anaheim with hundreds of thousands of e-mails is designed to boost the NPD's score in elections this coming Sunday in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany's most populated state. The Sober.Q virus, Der Spiegel says, is "the newest version of the Sober virus, a worm that infects address books and sends a copy of itself to all the entries. Various security firms have released warnings that they received hundreds of thousands of Sober.Q emails within the first 24 hours of the virus' outbreak."

Furthermore, "Sober steals mail-addresses from infected computers and distributes itself in the name of any mail-address it can find. Another thing. Sober.Q runs on computers previously infected by an earlier version of the virus, Sober.P, which appeared only a week ago disguised as an email proclaiming free tickets to the Soccer Cup in 2006. That virus, which was able to switch into German or English, was particularly effective in soccer-crazed Germany, which will be hosting the cup matches," Der Spiegel says. (The Register in the U.K. also has a piece on this worm, and Pendagon has a ton of e-mails from readers complaining they've gotten from a dozen to hundreds of these spammed racist e-mails. )

The government of German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder tried to have the NPD banned as racist two years ago. But the case blew up when it was revealed that many of the NPD's leaders named in the case against it were agents of Schroeder's security services, and that these government moles had initiated some of the provocative, violence-inducing actions that were included in the list of charges the government cited in calling for the party to be outlawed.

The NPD's vote in Saxony last year was, in part, a reaction to the government's attempt to ban it. I've always opposed attempts to ban hate speech or parties that engage in it -- such actions always contributed to the martyrdom complex such extremists always cultivate, bring them attention they would not have received otherwise, and make them attractive to disgruntled, politically illiterate, unemployed youth of the kind who made up Hitler's brownshirted private army, the S.A., whose strong-arm tactics helped bring him to power.

Anti-immigrant campaigns have allowed far right and neo-fascist parties all over Europe to grow by surfing on the Continent-wide new wave of racism, an atmosphere of hate and fear that is also fueled by starkly declining birth rates among the native white populations and intensive breeding by the largely Arab and Turkish immigrants. But let's hope Germans aren't fooled by the NPD next Sunday.

And if you've received one of these Sober.Q e-mails, and clicked on one of the links in them, get your computer disinfected fast -- it means the NPD has turned it into a machine to reproduce and spew their hate.

PROTEST BUSH'S POLICY TOWARD VENEZUELA -- BUY CITGO! My friend Jeff Cohen, the founder of FAIR, has a piece today on Common Dreams, in which he says: "Looking for an easy way to protest Bush foreign policy week after week? And an easy way to help alleviate global poverty? Buy your gasoline at Citgo stations.....Citgo is a U.S. refining and marketing firm that is a wholly owned subsidiary of Venezuela 's state owned oil company. Money you pay to Citgo goes to Venezuela-- not Saudi Arabia or the Middle East.

"There are 14,000 Citgo gas stations in the US. (Click here to find one near you.) By buying your gasoline at Citgo, you are contributing to the billions of dollars that Venezuela's democratic government is using to provide health care, literacy and education, and subsidized food for the majority of Venezuelans." To read Jeff's entire piece, click here.

Posted by Doug Ireland at 08:05 AM | Permalink


Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the Nazi German regime in its concentration camps mainly in the early 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust. Prisoners were coerced into participating: they did not willingly volunteer and there was never informed consent. Typically, the experiments resulted in death, disfigurement or permanent disability, and as such can be considered as examples of medical torture. At Auschwitz and other camps, under the direction of Dr. Eduard Wirths, selected inmates were subjected to various hazardous experiments which were supposedly designed to help German military personnel in combat situations, develop new weapons, aid in the recovery of military personnel that had been injured, and to advance the racial ideology backed by the Third Reich. Dr. Aribert Heim conducted similar medical experiments at Mauthausen. Carl Vaernet is known to have conducted experiments on homosexual prisoners in attempts to cure homosexuality. After the war, these crimes were tried at what became known as the Doctors' Trial, and revulsion at the abuses perpetrated led to the development of the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics.


According to the indictments at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments included the following:

Experiments on twins

Experiments on twin children in concentration camps were created to show the similarities and differences in the genetics of twins, as well as to see if the human body can be unnaturally manipulated. The central leader of the experiments was Josef Mengele, who from 1943 to 1944 performed experiments on nearly 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. Only 100 individuals survived these studies. While attending University of Munich (located in the city that remained one of Adolf Hitler's focal points during the revolution) studying philosophy and medicine with an emphasis on anthropology and paleontology, Mengele stated: "this simple political concept (fascism) finally became the decisive factor in my life". Mengele's new-found admiration for the "simple political concept" led him to mix his studies of medicine and politics as his career choice. Mengele received his PhD for a thesis entitled "Racial Morphological Research on the Lower Jaw Section of Four Racial Groups", which suggested that a person's race could be identified by the shape of the jaw. The Nazi organization saw his studies as talents, and Mengele was transferred to the German Auschwitz concentration camp located in occupied Poland on May 30, 1943. Contrary to common belief, Mengele was not the only doctor at Auschwitz nor was he even the highest-ranking physician: SS captain Dr. Eduard Wirths was the physician in charge at Auschwitz. There, Mengele organized genetic experiments on twins. The twins were arranged by age and sex and kept in barracks between experiments, which ranged from injection of different chemicals into the eyes of twins to see whether it would change their colour to literally sewing twins together in attempts to create conjoined twins.

Bone, muscle, and nerve transplantation experiments

From about September 1942 to about December 1943 experiments were conducted at the Ravensbrück concentration camp, for the benefit of the German Armed Forces, to study bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration, and bone transplantation from one person to another. Sections of bones, muscles, and nerves were removed from the subjects without use of anesthesia. As a result of these operations, many victims suffered intense agony, mutilation, and permanent disability.

Head injury experiments

In the summer of 1942 in Baranowicze, Poland, experiments were conducted in a small building behind the private home occupied by Nazi SD Security Service officer Dr. Wichtmann, in which "a young boy of eleven or twelve [was] strapped to a chair so he could not move. Above him was a mechanized hammer that every few seconds came down upon his head." The boy was driven insane from the torture.

Freezing experiments

In 1941, the Luftwaffe conducted experiments with the intent of discovering means to prevent and treat hypothermia. One study forced subjects to endure a tank of ice water for up to five hours.

"Exitus" (death) table compiled by Dr Sigmund Rascher. The temperatures are given using the Celcius scale. Versuch Nr. (Attempt No.) Wasser- temperatur (Water temperature) Körpertemperatur bei Entfernung aus dem Wasser (Body temperature when removed from the water) Körpertemperatur beim Eintritt des Todes (Body temperature at death) Verweildauer im Wasser (Length of time in water) Eintritt des Todes (Occurrence of death)
5 5.2° 27.7° 27.7° 66' 66'
13 6° 29.2° 29.2° 80' 87'
14 4° 27.8° 27.5° 95' 100'
16 4° 28.7° 26° 60' 74'
23 4.5° 27.8° 25.7° 57' 65'
25 4.5° 27.8° 26.6° 51' 65'
4.2° 26.7° 25.9° 53' 53'

Another study placed prisoners naked in the open air for several hours with temperatures as low as -6°C (21°F). Besides studying the physical effects of cold exposure, the experimenters also assessed different methods of rewarming survivors.

The freezing/hypothermia experiments were conducted for the Nazi high command to simulate the conditions the armies suffered on the Eastern Front, as the German forces were ill-prepared for the cold weather they encountered. Many experiments were conducted on captured Russian troops; the Nazis wondered whether their genetics gave them superior resistance to cold. The principal locales were Dachau and Auschwitz. Dr Sigmund Rascher, an SS doctor based at Dachau, reported directly to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and publicised the results of his freezing experiments at the 1942 medical conference entitled "Medical Problems Arising from Sea and Winter". Approximately 100 people are reported to have died as a result of these experiments.

Malaria experiments

From about February 1942 to about April 1945, experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp in order to investigate immunization for treatment of malaria. Healthy inmates were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of female mosquitoes. After contracting the disease, the subjects were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficiency. Over 1,000 people were used in these experiments, and of those, more than half died as a result.

Mustard gas experiments

At various times between September 1939 and April 1945, many experiments were conducted at Sachsenhausen, Natzweiler, and other camps to investigate the most effective treatment of wounds caused by mustard gas. Test subjects were deliberately exposed to mustard gas and other vesicants (e.g. Lewisite) which inflicted severe chemical burns. The victims' wounds were then tested to find the most effective treatment for the mustard gas burns.

Children of the Bullenhuser Damm show incisions where axillary lymph nodes had been surgically removed after they were deliberately infected with tuberculosis at Neuengamme. In a "cover-up" operation, all were murdered with their 4 adult Jewish caretakers and 6 Red Army POWs in the basement of the school on April 20, 1945 as British forces approached.

Sulfonamide experiments

From about July 1942 to about September 1943, experiments to investigate the effectiveness of sulfonamide, a synthetic antimicrobial agent, were conducted at Ravensbrück. Wounds inflicted on the subjects were infected with bacteria such as Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens (the causative agent in gas gangrene) and Clostridium tetani, the causative agent in tetanus. Circulation of blood was interrupted by tying off blood vessels at both ends of the wound to create a condition similar to that of a battlefield wound. Infection was aggravated by forcing wood shavings and ground glass into the wounds. The infection was treated with sulfonamide and other drugs to determine their effectiveness.

Sea water experiments

From about July 1944 to about September 1944, experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp to study various methods of making sea water drinkable. At one point, a group of roughly 90 Roma were deprived of food and given nothing but sea water to drink by Dr. Hans Eppinger, leaving them gravely injured. They were so dehydrated that others observed them licking freshly mopped floors in an attempt to get drinkable water.

Sterilization experiments

From about March 1941 to about January 1945, sterilization experiments were conducted at Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, and other places by Dr. Carl Clauberg. The purpose of these experiments was to develop a method of sterilization which would be suitable for sterilizing millions of people with a minimum of time and effort. These experiments were conducted by means of X-ray, surgery and various drugs. Thousands of victims were sterilized. Aside from its experimentation, the Nazi government sterilized around 400,000 individuals as part of its compulsory sterilization program. Intravenous injections of solutions speculated to contain iodine and silver nitrate were successful, but had unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Therefore, radiation treatment became the favored choice of sterilization. Specific amounts of exposure to radiation destroyed a person’s ability to produce ova or sperm. The radiation was administered through deception. Prisoners were brought into a room and asked to complete forms, which took two to three minutes. In this time, the radiation treatment was administered and, unknown to the prisoners, they were rendered completely sterile. Many suffered severe radiation burns.

Experiments with poison

Somewhere between December 1943 and October 1944, experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to investigate the effect of various poisons. The poisons were secretly administered to experimental subjects in their food. The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies. In September 1944, experimental subjects were shot with poisonous bullets, suffered torture and often died.

Incendiary bomb experiments

From around November 1943 to around January 1944, experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorus burns. These burns were inflicted on prisoners using phosphorus material extracted from incendiary bombs.

High altitude experiments

Further information: Hubertus Strughold

In early 1942, prisoners at Dachau concentration camp were used by Rascher in experiments to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes. A low-pressure chamber containing these prisoners was used to simulate conditions at altitudes of up to 20,000 m (66,000 ft). It was rumored that Rascher performed vivisections on the brains of victims who survived the initial experiment. Of the 200 subjects, 80 died outright, and the others were executed.


Many of the subjects died as a result of the experiments conducted by the Nazis, while many others were murdered after the tests were completed to study the effect post mortem. Those who survived were often left mutilated, suffering permanent disability, weakened bodies, and mental distress. On August 19, 1947, the doctors captured by Allied forces were put on trial in USA vs. Karl Brandt et al., which is commonly known as the Doctors' Trial. At the trial, several of the doctors argued in their defense that there was no international law regarding medical experimentation.

The issue of informed consent had previously been controversial in German medicine in 1900, when Dr. Albert Neisser infected patients (mainly prostitutes) with syphilis without their consent. Despite Neisser's support from most of the academic community, public opinion, led by psychiatrist Albert Moll, was against Neisser. While Neisser went on to be fined by the Royal Disciplinary Court, Moll developed "a legally based, positivistic contract theory of the patient-doctor relationship" that was not adopted into German law. Eventually, the minister for religious, educational, and medical affairs issued a directive stating that medical interventions other than for diagnosis, healing, and immunization were excluded under all circumstances if "the human subject was a minor or not competent for other reasons" or if the subject had not given his or her "unambiguous consent" after a "proper explanation of the possible negative consequences" of the intervention, though this was not legally binding.

In response, Drs. Leo Alexander and Andrew Conway Ivy drafted a ten point memorandum entitled Permissible Medical Experiment that went on to be known as the Nuremberg Code. The code calls for such standards as voluntary consent of patients, avoidance of unnecessary pain and suffering, and that there must be a belief that the experimentation will not end in death or disability. The Code was not cited in any of the findings against the defendants and never made it into either German or American medical law.

Modern ethical issues

Contemporary knowledge concerning the manner in which the human body reacts to freezing is based almost exclusively on these Nazi experiments. This, together with the recent use of data from Nazi research into the effects of phosgene gas, has proven controversial and presents an ethical dilemma for modern physicians who do not agree with the methods used to obtain this data. Similarly, controversy has arisen from the use of results of biological warfare testing done by the Imperial Japanese Army's Unit 731. However, the results from Unit 731 were kept classified by the United States and the majority of doctors involved were given pardons.


dr. Josef Mengele the angel of death 1/6

Josef Rudolf Mengele (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈʁuːdɔlf ˈmɛŋɡələ], March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979), also known as the Angel of Death (German: Todesengel), was a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. He earned doctorates in anthropology from Munich University and in medicine from Frankfurt University. He initially gained notoriety for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed and who was to become a forced laborer, but is far more infamous for performing grisly human experiments on camp inmates, including children, for which Mengele was called the "Angel of Death."

In 1940, he was placed in the reserve medical corps, after which he served with the 5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking in the Eastern Front. In 1942, he was wounded at the Soviet front and was pronounced medically unfit for combat, and was then promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) for saving the lives of three German soldiers. He survived the war, and after a period living incognito in Germany he fled to South America, where he evaded capture for the rest of his life despite being hunted as a Nazi war criminal.

Early life and family

Josef Mengele was born the eldest of three children to Karl and Walburga (née Hupfauer) Mengele in Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany. His younger brothers were Karl Junior and Alois Mengele. Mengele's father was a founder of the Karl Mengele & Sons company, a company that produced farm machinery for milling, sawing, and baling. In 1935, Mengele earned a PhD in Anthropology from the University of Munich. In January 1937, at the Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Frankfurt, he became the assistant to Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer who was a leading scientist mostly known for his research in genetics with a particular interest in twins. From this association, Mengele probably developed his life-long fascination with the study of twins. In addition Mengele studied under Theodor Mollison and Eugen Fischer, who had been involved in medical experiments on the Herero tribe in South-West Africa, now Namibia. On July 28, 1939, Mengele married Irene Schönbein, whom he had met while studying in Leipzig. Their only son, Rolf, was born March 11, 1941. Five years after Mengele emigrated to Buenos Aires in 1949, his wife Irene divorced him. She continued to live in Germany with their son. On July 25, 1958, in Nueva Helvecia, Uruguay, Mengele was remarried to Martha Mengele, the widow of his younger brother Karl. Martha Mengele had arrived in Buenos Aires in 1956 with Karl-Heinz, her son from her first marriage. Josef and Martha had no further children.

Military service

In 1937 Mengele joined the Nazi Party. In 1938 he received his medical degree and joined the SS. Mengele was conscripted into the army in 1940 and later volunteered to the medical service of the Waffen-SS, the combat arm of the SS, where he distinguished himself as a soldier. Hitler declared war against the Soviet Union on 22nd June 1941. Later that month Mengele was awarded the Iron Cross Second Class for his heroism at the Ukrainian Front. In January 1942, while serving with the SS Wiking Division behind Soviet lines, he pulled two German soldiers from a burning tank, and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class as well as the Wound Badge in Black and the Medal for the Care of the German People. Mengele was wounded during this campaign; since he was medically unfit for combat, Mengele was posted to the Race and Resettlement Office in Berlin. Mengele resumed an association with his mentor, von Verschuer, who was at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin. Just before he was transferred to Auschwitz, Mengele was promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) in April 1943.


In May 1943, Mengele replaced another doctor who had fallen ill at the Nazi extermination camp Birkenau. On May 24, 1943, he became medical officer of Auschwitz-Birkenau's "Gypsy camp". In August 1944, this camp was liquidated and all its inmates gassed. Subsequently Mengele became Chief Medical Officer of the main infirmary camp at Birkenau. He was not the Chief Medical Officer of Auschwitz, though: his superior was SS-Standortarzt (garrison physician) Eduard Wirths.

During his 21-month stay at Auschwitz, Mengele earned the sobriquet "Angel of Death" for the cruelty he visited upon prisoners. Mengele was referred to as "der weiße Engel" ("the White Angel") by camp inmates because when he stood on the platform inspecting new arrivals and directing some to the right, some to the left (the gas chambers), his white coat and white arms outstretched evoked the image of a white angel. Mengele took turns with the other SS physicians at Auschwitz in meeting incoming prisoners at the camp, where it was determined who would be retained for work and who would be sent to the gas chambers immediately. In one instance, he drew a line on the wall of the children's block 150 centimetres (about 5 feet) from the floor, and children whose heads could not reach the line were sent to the gas chambers.

"He had a look that said 'I am the power,'" said one survivor. When it was reported that one block was infested with lice, Mengele ordered the 750 women that lived inside the dormitories to be gassed.

Human experimentation

Block 10 – Medical experimentation block in AuschwitzMengele used Auschwitz as an opportunity to continue his research on heredity, using inmates for human experimentation. He was particularly interested in identical twins; they would be selected and placed in special barracks. He recruited Berthold Epstein, a Jewish pediatrician, and Miklós Nyiszli, a Hungarian Jewish pathologist, to assist with his experiments.

As a doctor, Epstein proposed to Mengele a study into treatments of the disease called noma that was noted for particularly affecting children from the camp. While the exact cause of noma remains uncertain, it is now known that it has a higher occurrence in children suffering from malnutrition and a lower immune system response. Many develop the disease shortly after contracting another illness such as measles or tuberculosis.

Mengele took an interest in physical abnormalities discovered among the arrivals at the concentration camp. These included dwarfs, notably the Ovitz family – the children of a Romanian artist, seven of whom were dwarfs. Prior to their deportation, they toured in Eastern Europe as the Lilliput Troupe. Mengele often called them "my dwarf family"; to him they seemed to be the perfect expression of "the abnorm".

Mengele's experiments also included attempts to change eye colour by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, various amputations of limbs, and other surgeries. Rena Gelissen's account of her time in Auschwitz details certain experiments performed on female prisoners around October 1943. Mengele would experiment on the chosen girls, performing sterilization and shock treatments. Most of the victims died, because of either the experiments or later infections.

"Once Mengele's assistant rounded up 14 pairs of Roma twins during the night. Mengele placed them on his polished marble dissection table and put them to sleep. He then injected chloroform into their hearts, killing them instantly. Mengele then began dissecting and meticulously noting each piece of the twins' bodies."
At Auschwitz, Mengele did a number of studies on twins. After an experiment was over, the twins were usually killed and their bodies dissected. He supervised an operation by which two Roma children were sewn together to create conjoined twins; the hands of the children became badly infected where the veins had been resected; this also caused gangrene.

The subjects of Mengele's research were better fed and housed than ordinary prisoners and were, for the time being, safe from the gas chambers, although many experiments resulted in more painful deaths. When visiting his child subjects, he introduced himself as "Uncle Mengele" and offered them sweets. Some survivors remember that despite his grim acts, he was also called "Mengele the protector".

The book Children of the Flames, by Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Shiela Cohn Dekel, chronicles Mengele's medical experimental activities on approximately 1,500 pairs of twins who passed through the Auschwitz death camp during World War II until its liberation at the end of the war. Only 100 pairs of twins survived; 60 years later, they came forward about the special privileges they were given in Auschwitz owing to Mengele's interest in twins, and how as a result they have suffered, as the children who survived his medical experiments and injections.

Mengele also sought out pregnant women, on whom he would perform vivisections before sending them to the gas chambers.

Auschwitz prisoner Alex Dekel has said: "I have never accepted the fact that Mengele himself believed he was doing serious work – not from the slipshod way he went about it. He was only exercising his power. Mengele ran a butcher shop – major surgeries were performed without anaesthesia. Once, I witnessed a stomach operation – Mengele was removing pieces from the stomach, but without any anaesthetic. Another time, it was a heart that was removed, again without anaesthesia. It was horrifying. Mengele was a doctor who became mad because of the power he was given. Nobody ever questioned him – why did this one die? Why did that one perish? The patients did not count. He professed to do what he did in the name of science, but it was a madness on his part."

An Auschwitz prisoner doctor has said: "He was capable of being so kind to the children, to have them become fond of him, to bring them sugar, to think of small details in their daily lives, and to do things we would genuinely admire.... And then, next to that,... the crematoria smoke, and these children, tomorrow or in a half-hour, he is going to send them there. Well, that is where the anomaly lay."

After Auschwitz

The SS abandoned the Auschwitz camp on January 27, 1945, and Mengele transferred to Gross Rosen camp in Lower Silesia, again working as camp physician. Gross Rosen was dissolved at the end of February when the Red Army was close to taking it. Mengele worked in other camps for a short time and, on May 2, joined a Wehrmacht medical unit led by Hans Otto Kahler, his former colleague at the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Bohemia. The unit hurried west to avoid being captured by the Soviets and were taken as prisoners of war by the Americans. Mengele, initially registered under his own name, was released in June 1945 with papers giving his name as "Fritz Hollmann". From July 1945 until May 1949, he worked as a farmhand in a small village near Rosenheim, Bavaria, staying in contact with his wife and his old friend Hans Sedlmeier, who arranged Mengele's escape to Argentina via Innsbruck, Sterzing, Meran, and Genoa. Mengele may have been assisted by the ODESSA network.

In South America

In Buenos Aires, Mengele at first worked in construction, but soon came in contact with influential Germans, who allowed him an affluent lifestyle in subsequent years. He also got to know other Nazis in Buenos Aires, such as Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Adolf Eichmann. In 1955, he bought a 50 percent share of Fadro Farm, a pharmaceutical company; the same year, he divorced his wife, Irene. Three years later, he married Martha Mengele in Uruguay, the widow of his younger brother, Karl Jr.; she then went to Argentina with her 14-year-old son, Dieter. Mengele lived with his family in a German-owned boarding house in the Buenos Aires suburb of Vicente Lopez from 1958 to 1960. While in Buenos Aires, Mengele practiced medicine, specializing in illegal abortions, and was briefly detained by police on one occasion for the death of a patient during an abortion.

He was doing well in South America, yet Mengele feared being captured, especially after news of Eichmann's capture and subsequent trial were revealed. Thus, he left Argentina in 1962 and moved to Paraguay after managing to get a Paraguayan passport in the name of "José Mengele".

Shortly after the capture of Eichmann in May 1960 by the Israeli Mossad, Mengele was spotted at his home. Agents of Mossad debated whether or not also to kidnap him. However, they still had Eichmann in a safe house inside Argentina, and determined that it would not be possible to conduct another operation at the same time. By the time Eichmann had been brought out of the country, Mengele had escaped to Paraguay.

Isser Harel, Chief Executive of the Secret Services of Israel (1952–1963), personally presided over the successful effort to capture Eichmann in Buenos Aires. In his account of the operation, he reports no sightings of Mengele in 1960, but feels that they might have got him if they could have moved more quickly. When asked about the secondary target by the co-pilot who helped transport Eichmann at the time, he claims to have told him that "had it been possible to start the operation several weeks earlier, Mengele might also have been on the plane." They checked on the last known location for Mengele in Argentina, but he had apparently moved on just two weeks prior.

Mengele hoped that Paraguay would be safer for him, as dictator Alfredo Stroessner was of German descent and even recruited former Nazis to help the country develop. Among other locations in Paraguay, he lived on the outskirts of Hohenau, a German colony north of Encarnación in the department of Itapúa.

According to a senior Mossad man, Israel had received reports that Mengele was in Brazil, but they kept this information to themselves. The Six-Day War in 1967 forced concentration of resources. But after the war, Israel decided to open an embassy in Asunción, Paraguay – perhaps an ideal base from which to pursue Mengele. But Benjamin Weiser Varon, Israeli ambassador from 1968–1972, was "not given any instructions by the foreign office on Mengele of any kind. It wasn't even mentioned."

"I must confess I was not so eager to find Mengele. He presented a dilemma. Israel had less of a claim for his extradition than Germany. He was, after all, a German citizen who had committed his crimes in the name of the Third Reich. None of his victims were Israeli—Israel came into existence only several years later."
The same year, Mengele moved to Nova Europa, about 200 km (120 mi) outside São Paulo, where he lived with Hungarian refugees Geza and Gitta Stammer, working as manager of their farm. In the seclusion of his Brazilian hideaway Mengele was safe. In 1974, when his relationship with the Stammer family was coming to an end, Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Wolfgang Gerhard discussed relocating Mengele to Bolivia where he could spend time with Klaus Barbie, but Mengele rejected this proposal. Instead, he lived in a bungalow in a suburb of São Paulo for the last years of his life. In 1977, his only son Rolf, never having known his father before, visited him there and found an unrepentant Nazi who claimed that he "had never personally harmed anyone in his whole life".

Mengele's health had been deteriorating for years, and he died on February 7, 1979, in Bertioga, Brazil, where he accidentally drowned or possibly suffered a stroke while swimming in the Atlantic. He was buried in Embu das Artes under the name "Wolfgang Gerhard", whose ID card he had used since 1976.

Mengele showed little regret or remorse for his crimes, and expressed in a letter his astonishment and disgust over the remorseful position taken by Hitler's chief architect and Minister of Armaments, Albert Speer.

Argentine historian Jorge Camarasa speculated in his 2008 biography that Mengele, under the alias Rudolph Weiss, continued his human experimentation in South America and as a result of these experiments, a municipality in Brazil, Cândido Godói, has a very high birthrate of twin children: one in five pregnancies, with a substantial amount of the population looking Nordic. His theory was rejected by Brazilian scientists who had studied twins living in the area; they suggested genetic factors within that community as a more likely explanation.


Mengele was listed on the Allies' list of war criminals as early as 1944. His name was mentioned in the Nuremberg trials several times, but Allied forces were convinced that Mengele was dead, which was also claimed by Irene and the family in Günzburg. In 1959, suspicions had grown that he was still alive, given his divorce from Irene in 1955 and his marriage to Martha in 1958. An arrest warrant was issued by the West German authorities. Subsequently, West German attorneys such as Fritz Bauer, Israel's Mossad, and private investigators such as Simon Wiesenthal and Beate Klarsfeld followed the trail of the "Angel of Death". The last confirmed sightings of Mengele placed him in Paraguay, and it was believed that he was still hiding there, allegedly protected by flying ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel and possibly even by the dictator President Alfredo Stroessner. Mengele sightings were reported all over the world, but they turned out to be false.

In 1985, the West German police raided Hans Sedlmeier's house in Günzburg and seized address books, letters, and papers hinting at the grave in Embu. The remains of "Wolfgang Gerhard" were exhumed on June 6, 1985 and identified as Mengele's with high probability by forensic experts from UNICAMP. Rolf Mengele issued a statement saying that he "had no doubt it was the remains of his father". Everything was kept quiet "to protect those who knew him in South America", Rolf said. In 1992, a DNA test confirmed Mengele's identity. He had evaded capture for 34 years.

After the exhumation, the São Paulo Institute for Forensic Medicine stored his remains and attempted to repatriate them to the remaining Mengele family members, but the family rejected them. The bones have been stored at the São Paulo Institute for Forensic Medicine since.

In the 21st century

On September 17, 2007, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum released photographs taken from a photo album of Auschwitz staff, which contained eight photographs of Mengele. These eight photos of Mengele are the first authenticated pictures of him at Auschwitz, museum officials said.

In February 2010, Mengele's diary, kept from 1960 until his death in 1979, which included letters sent to Rolf and Wolfgang Gerhard was sold at auction in Connecticut by Alexander Autographs for an estimated $100,000 (£60,000). According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) the buyer was an East Coast Jewish philanthropist who wished to remain anonymous. The auction caused protest amongst some Holocaust survivors, describing it as "a cynical act of exploitation aimed at profiting from the writings of one of the most heinous Nazi criminals."[35] The previous owner, who acquired the diary in Brazil, is said to be close to the Mengele family.




El islam, la otra epidemia y amenaza a la paz y los derechos humanos.


EDL - English Defence League Must See Scary Beheadings of Christians by Arab Muslims in Europe

Si no es a base del terror y ejecuciones la implantación del islam y la ley sharia como una religión de paz es todo una farsa diabólica.








Restaurante Cafe del Mar, Patillas, P.R.

Uploaded by defajardoydeleste on Nov 15, 2009

Restaurante Cafe del Mar, Patillas, P.R. (






Manzanillo Cuba

Manzanillo es la ciudad más grande de la República de Cuba. La Ciudad de Manzanillo (ciudad del oriente cubano), en la actual Provincia de Granma, está situada a los 20º03´y 20º26´ de latitud Norte y entre los 77º14´ y 77º07´ longitud Oeste. Tiene una extensión superficial de 498,4 km². Es uno de los trece municipios que componen la provincia y el de mayor importancia a nivel industrial.

La población total alcanza la cifra de 132.183 personas, de ellas 65.810 son varones y 66.373 son mujeres, datos del Censo de Población y Viviendas de Cuba 2002. El 77,9% del total de la masa humana habita en la zona urbana cuya dimensión alcanza los 8,2 km².

Entre los rubros exportables más importantes pueden señalarse las baterías para automóviles y aviones (única de este tipo en el país), ropa exterior, calzado, camarón, ron, artículos de la industria ligera, productos de la industria alimenticia, partes y piezas mecánicas y renglones agrícolas.

A la ciudad puede llegarse por vía aérea (Aeropuerto Internacional "Sierra Maestra"), vía terrestre y marítima.

Su ubicación costera, a las márgenes del Golfo del Guacanayabo, ha marcado de modo especial su historia y cultura. En sus playas se producen los acontecimientos que dieron origen al primer monumento de la literatura cubana, el poema épico Espejo de Paciencia escrito por Silvestre de Balboa en el año 1604, mientras que el 10 de octubre de 1868, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y del Castillo, considerado el Padre de la Patria, proclama, en su ingenio Demajagua, a escasos 8 kilómetros de la ciudad, la independencia de Cuba. Se inicia así la forja armada de la nación cubana.




Ana Gloria y Rolando bailando rumba.


114 Aniversario Máximo Gómez (1950)

by Memoria de Cuba

En el año 1950 se cumplen 114 años del natalicio del generalísimo Máximo Gómez y estas imágenes muestran el monumento del general erigido frente al Morro de La Habana.

Es un editorial que el Noticiario Nacional dedica a la figura del generalísimo.




Batalla de Busan

Acontecimientos del 1 de noviembre
El 01 de noviembre de 0885 el papa Gregorio cambia la fiesta de Todos los Santos del 13 de mayo al 1 de noviembre.

El 01 de noviembre de 0996 el emperador Otto III escribe a Gottschalk (obispo de Freising); es el documento más antiguo conocido que utiliza el nombre de Ostarrîchi (Austria en alto germano antiguo) germano antiguo, alto germano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1348 la Unión de Valencia (antirrealista) ataca a los judíos de Murviedro debido a que son súbditos del rey de Valencia, y por lo tanto realistas.

El 01 de noviembre de 1512 por primera vez es exhibida en público la Capilla Sixtina, pintada por Michelángelo.

El 01 de noviembre de 1520 el portugués Fernando Magallanes navega por primera vez el estrecho que lleva su nombre (pasaje de Sudamérica que une el océano Pacífico y el Atlántico).

El 01 de noviembre de 1549 en Colombia se funda la ciudad de Pamplona, primera ciudad colombiana que declaró la independencia contra la colonización española.

El 01 de noviembre de 1569 en Panamá se funda la Heroica Villa de Los Santos, cuna de la nacionalidad panameña.

El 01 de noviembre de 1570 en España: los moriscos de Granada, Valle de Lecrín, la Vega y otras comarcas, son reunidos en las iglesias de cada alquería y obligados a salir hacia Córdoba, y desde allí repartidos por Extremadura y Galicia.

El 01 de noviembre de 1592 en la Batalla de Busan, la marina japonesa destruye a la coreana.

El 01 de noviembre de 1600 en Bolivia se funda la ciudad de Oruro.

El 01 de noviembre de 1604 en el Whitehall Palace de Londres se representa por primera vez la obra Otelo, de William Shakespeare.

El 01 de noviembre de 1611 en el Whitehall Palace de Londres se representa por primera vez la comedia romántica La tempestad, de William Shakespeare.

El 01 de noviembre de 1612 Kitai-gorod es capturada por las tropas rusas bajo el comando de Dmitri Mikhailovich Pozharski.

El 01 de noviembre de 1683 la colonia británica de Nueva York es subdividida en 12 condados.

El 01 de noviembre de 1745 en Roma, el papa Benedicto XIV publica la encíclica Vix pervenit, acerca de la usura.

El 01 de noviembre de 1755 en Portugal, un gran terremoto y un tsunami destruyen por completo Lisboa. Mueren entre 60.000 y 90.000 personas.

El 01 de noviembre de 1765 para pagar las operaciones militares en Norteamérica, el parlamento británico activa la Stamp Act de las 13 colonias.

El 01 de noviembre de 1790 Edmund Burke publica Reflexiones de la Revolución en Francia, en la que predice que la Revolución francesa acabará en desastre.

El 01 de noviembre de 1800 el presidente de Estados Unidos John Adams se convierte en el primer presidente que vive en la Mansión Ejecutiva (más tarde llamada Casa Blanca).

El 01 de noviembre de 1805 Napoleón Bonaparte invade el Imperio austríaco durante la Guerra de la tercera coalición.

El 01 de noviembre de 1814 en Viena (Austria) se abre un congreso para rediseñar el mapa político de Europa luego de la derrota de Napoleón.

El 01 de noviembre de 1830 El general Ricardo López Jordán se levanta en armas contra la provincia de Entre Ríos (Argentina).

El 01 de noviembre de 1848 en Boston (Masachusets), se abre la primera escuela de medicina para mujeres, The Boston Female Medical School (que más tarde será absorbida por la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Boston).

El 01 de noviembre de 1855 en Turín (Italia) se funda la editorial Claudiana.

El 01 de noviembre de 1859 se inaugura el faro de Cape Lookout (Carolina del Norte). Sus lentes Fresnel se pueden ver desde 30 kilómetros).

El 01 de noviembre de 1861 en la Guerra civil de los Estados Unidos, el presidente Abraham Lincoln nombra a George B. McClellan como comandante de las fuerzas unionista en substitución del veterano general Winfield Scott.

El 01 de noviembre de 1870 el Weather Bureau de EE. UU. realiza su primera previsión meteorológica.

El 01 de noviembre de 1876 en Nueva Zelanda se disuelve el sistema de gobierno provincial.

El 01 de noviembre de 1885 en Roma, el papa León XIII publica la encíclica Misericors Dei Filius, acerca de la naturaleza sobrenatural de la Iglesia, las relaciones entre el poder eclesiástico y el poder civil, la iniquidad del humanismo y la libertad religiosa, la tendencia modern

El 01 de noviembre de 1891 en Chile se disuelve la Junta de Gobierno de Iquique, tras el Ataque a Iquique.

El 01 de noviembre de 1894 Nicolás II de Rusia se convierte en el nuevo zar de Rusia después de la muerte de su padre Alejandro III de Rusia.

El 01 de noviembre de 1896 en EE. UU. se muestran por primera vez los pechos desnudos de una mujer en una revista (National Geographic).

El 01 de noviembre de 1897 en Turín (Italia) un grupo de estudiantes del Liceo Clásico «Massimo D'Azeglio» funda el club de fútbol Juventus.

El 01 de noviembre de 1901 en la universidad Richmond College —en Richmond (Virginia)— se funda la fraternidad Sigma Phi Epsilon, la más grande del país.

El 01 de noviembre de 1911 durante un combate en la guerra ítalo-turca, se deja caer por primera vez una bomba desde un aeroplano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1914 en el marco de la Primera Guerra Mundial, Alemania vence por primera vez a la Royal Navy británica, en la Batalla de Coronel, al oeste de las costas de Chile.

El 01 de noviembre de 1914 en Roma, el papa Benedicto XV publica la encíclica Ad beatissimi apostolorum principis, acerca de las funestas condiciones que llevan a la guerra, los males y los errores de las concepciones modernas, las divisiones entre los católicos, los males del mode

El 01 de noviembre de 1918 Ucrania se independiza del Imperio Ruso.

El 01 de noviembre de 1922 en Turquía renuncia el último sultán, Mehmet VI. Se disuelve así oficialmente el Imperio otomano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1929 en España, la catedral de Granada es declarada Monumento Nacional.

El 01 de noviembre de 1939 nace el primer conejo nacido por inseminación artificial.

El 01 de noviembre de 1941 el fotógrafo Ansel Adams hace una foto sobre la salida de la Luna la ciudad de Hernández (Nuevo México) que se convierte de una de las más famosas de la historia de la fotografía.[1]

El 01 de noviembre de 1943 en las Islas Solomon —en el marco de la Segunda Guerra Mundial— la 3.ª División de marines estadounidenses aterrizan en la isla de Bougainville y libran la Batalla de la Bahía de Empress Augusta.

El 01 de noviembre de 1944 en Países Bajos, unidades de la British Army aterrizan en Walcheren (Segunda Guerra Mundial).

El 01 de noviembre de 1945 en Corea del Norte se inaugura el periódico oficial Rodong Sinmun (con el nombre de Chongro).

El 01 de noviembre de 1945 Australia se une a las Naciones Unidas.

El 01 de noviembre de 1948 al sudeste de Manchuria, 6000 personas mueren al explotar un mercante chino.

El 01 de noviembre de 1950 en Blair House, los nacionalistas puertorriqueños Griselio Torresola y Óscar Collazo atentan contra el presidente de los EE. UU. Harry S. Truman.

El 01 de noviembre de 1950 en el Vaticano, el papa Pío XII establece la infalibilidad papal cuando formalmente define como dogma la Asunción de María.

El 01 de noviembre de 1951 en Desert Rock (Nevada) soldados estadounidenses son expuestos a una explosión atómica con propósitos de entrenamiento. La participación no fue voluntaria.

El 01 de noviembre de 1952 en el atolón de Enewetak (en las islas Marshall, EE. UU. hace explotar a Mike (la primera bomba de hidrógeno).

El 01 de noviembre de 1954 en Argelia, el Frente de Libération Nationale empieza a actuar en la Guerra de independencia de Argelia.

El 01 de noviembre de 1955 cerca de Longmont (Colorado) explota un avión Douglas DC-6B (el vuelo 629 de United Airlines) por una bomba puesta por Jack Gilbert Graham (23) para matar a su madre. Muere ésta y los demás 43 pasajeros y tripulantes. Graham fue ejecutado el 11 de enero d

El 01 de noviembre de 1956 en India se forman los estados de Andhra Pradesh (antes llamado Nizam), Karnataka (antes Mysore) y Kerala.

El 01 de noviembre de 1957 sobre el lago Michigan se abre al tráfico el puente del Estrecho de Mackinac (el puente colgante más largo del mundo).

El 01 de noviembre de 1960 durante la campaña electoral, el presidente de EE. UU. John F. Kennedy anuncia la idea de los Cuerpos de Paz.

El 01 de noviembre de 1962 la URSS lanza la sonda Marsnik 1 a Marte, con la cual se perdió contacto cuando estaba a unos 106 millones de kilómetros de la Tierra.

El 01 de noviembre de 1962 en Italia sale el primer número del cómic Diabolik.

El 01 de noviembre de 1963 en Arecibo (Puerto Rico), se inaugura el observatorio Arecibo, el radiotelescopio más grande del mundo.

El 01 de noviembre de 1968 se presenta el "Wonderwall Music" de George Harrison, el primer álbum en solitario de un miembro de Beatle, publicado por Apple Records.

El 01 de noviembre de 1968 en EE. UU., The Motion Picture Association of America inaugura su sistema de calificación de películas (G, M, R y X).

El 01 de noviembre de 1969 en EE. UU., Elvis Presley publica Suspicious Minds, después de siete años lejos de los escenarios.

El 01 de noviembre de 1970 en Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, Francia) se incendia una sala de baile. Mueren 144 personas.

El 01 de noviembre de 1973 en EE. UU., Leon Jaworski es nombrado fiscal del caso en el escándalo Watergate.

El 01 de noviembre de 1973 en India, el estado de Mysore cambia su nombre por el de Karnataka.

El 01 de noviembre de 1981 Antigua y Barbuda se independizan del Reino Unido.

El 01 de noviembre de 1982 en Marysville (Ohio), la empresa japonesa Honda inaugura una fábrica. Se convierte así en la primera compañía automotriz que produce autos en EE. UU. Producen el Honda Accord.

El 01 de noviembre de 1991 en la University of Iowa el estudiante Gang Lu mata a 5 profesores a tiros.

El 01 de noviembre de 1993 entra en vigor el Tratado de Maastricht.

El 01 de noviembre de 1995 comienza la conferencia de Dayton.

El 01 de noviembre de 1998 se instituye el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos.

El 01 de noviembre de 2004 en los Pirineos es matada Cannelle, la última osa originaria del lugar. Su cachorro escapó a los cazadores, pero no se conoce su paradero.

El 01 de noviembre de 2005 en Canadá se publica la primera parte del informe Gomery, que trata acerca de manipulación política de dinero.

Nacimientos del 01 de noviembre
El 01 de noviembre de 0846 nace Luis II, rey de Francia Este.

El 01 de noviembre de 1339 nace duque Rodolfo IV de Austria.

El 01 de noviembre de 1351 nace duque Leopoldo III de Austria.

El 01 de noviembre de 1498 nace Giovanni Ricci, cardenal italiano (m. 1574).

El 01 de noviembre de 1499 nace Rodrigo de Aragón, hijo de Lucrecia Borgia (m 1512)

El 01 de noviembre de 1516 nace Francesco d'Este, hijo de Lucrecia Borgia (m. 1578).

El 01 de noviembre de 1526 nace Catalina Jagellón, duquesa de Finlandia y reina de Suecia.

El 01 de noviembre de 1530 nace Étienne de La Boétie, juez y escritor francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1539 nace Pierre Pithou, abogado y maestro francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1549 nace Ana de Austria, reina consorte de España (1570-1580).

El 01 de noviembre de 1554 nace Prospero Farinacci, jurista italiano (m. 1618).

El 01 de noviembre de 1567 nace Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, diplomático español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1578 nace Dmitry Pozharsky, príncipe ruso.

El 01 de noviembre de 1585 nace Jan Brożek, matemático, físico y astrónomo polaco.

El 01 de noviembre de 1596 nace Pietro da Cortona, arquitecto y pintor barroco italiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1607 nace Georg Philipp Harsdorffer, poeta alemán.

El 01 de noviembre de 1611 nace François-Marie, comte de Broglie, militar francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1636 nace Nicolás Boileau, poeta y crítico francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1643 nace John Strype, historiador inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1661 nace Florent Carton Dancourt, dramaturgo y actor francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1667 nace Carlo Gaetano Stampa, cardenal y arzobispo italiano (m. 1742).

El 01 de noviembre de 1704 nace Paul Daniel Longolius, enciclopedista alemán.

El 01 de noviembre de 1713 nace Antonio Genovesi, escritor y filósofo italiano (m. 1769).

El 01 de noviembre de 1720 nace Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte, almirante francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1727 nace Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov, fundador de la Universidad de Moscú.

El 01 de noviembre de 1743 nace Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst, naturalista y entomólogo alemán (m. 1807).

El 01 de noviembre de 1748 nace Francesco Galeani Napione, historiador italiano (m. 1830).

El 01 de noviembre de 1751 nace Ennio Quirino Visconti, arqueólogo y político italiano (m. 1818).

El 01 de noviembre de 1753 nace Félix María Calleja del Rey, militar español (m. 1828).

El 01 de noviembre de 1757 nace Antonio Canova, escultor italiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1762 nace Spencer Perceval, político inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1778 nace Gustavo IV Adolfo, rey de Suecia.

El 01 de noviembre de 1782 nace Frederick John Robinson, político inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1786 nace Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, escritora argentina.

El 01 de noviembre de 1800 nace José María del Canto Marín de Poveda, militar chileno.

El 01 de noviembre de 1847 nace Emma Albani, soprano canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1849 nace Valentín Lamas Carvajal, poeta y periodista español en lengua gallega.

El 01 de noviembre de 1871 nace Stephen Crane, escritor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1877 nace Roger Quilter, compositor británico.

El 01 de noviembre de 1878 nace Konrad Mägi, pintor estonio.

El 01 de noviembre de 1878 nace Carlos Saavedra Lamas, político y jurista argentino, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1936.

El 01 de noviembre de 1880 nace Sholom Asch, escritor estadounidense de origen polaco.

El 01 de noviembre de 1880 nace Alfred Wegener, meteorólogo y geofísico alemán.

El 01 de noviembre de 1881 nace Edward Van Sloan, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1884 nace Annibale Bergonzoli, general italiano (m. 1973).

El 01 de noviembre de 1885 nace Guido Adler, musicólogo y docente austriaco (m. 1941).

El 01 de noviembre de 1886 nace Hermann Broch, autor australiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1887 nace L. S. Lowry, pintor británico.

El 01 de noviembre de 1889 nace Philip J. Noel-Baker, atleta, político y diplomático británico, Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1959.

El 01 de noviembre de 1892 nace Alexander Alekhine, ajedrecista ruso.

El 01 de noviembre de 1898 nace Arthur Legat, piloto de carreras belga.

El 01 de noviembre de 1902 nace Eugen Jochum, director de orquesta alemán.

El 01 de noviembre de 1903 nace Max Adrian, actor irlandés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1903 nace Jean Tardieu, artista y poeta francés (m. 1995).

El 01 de noviembre de 1905 nace Paul-Émile Borduas, pintor canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1907 nace Homero Manzi, letrista argentino de tangos.

El 01 de noviembre de 1910 nace César Augusto Dávila Gavilanes sacerdote y yogui ecuatoriano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1911 nace Henri Troyat, escritor, historiador y biógrafo ruso-francés (m. 2007).

El 01 de noviembre de 1919 nace Hermann Bondi, matemático y cosmólogo austriaco (m. 2005).

El 01 de noviembre de 1920 nace James Kilpatrick, periodista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1921 nace María Cánepa, actriz chilena.

El 01 de noviembre de 1921 nace John W. Peterson, compositor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1921 nace Mario Rigoni Stern, scrittore italiano (m. 2008).

El 01 de noviembre de 1923 nace Victoria de los Ángeles, soprano española.

El 01 de noviembre de 1923 nace Gordon R. Dickson, autor canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1924 nace Süleyman Demirel, Presidente de Turquía.

El 01 de noviembre de 1924 nace Jean-Luc Pépin, político canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1926 nace Lou Donaldson, saxofonista de jazz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1927 nace Filippo Maria Pandolfi, político italiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1929 nace Betsy Palmer, actriz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1930 nace A. R. Gurney, dramaturgo estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1931 nace Shunsuke Kikuchi, músico y compositor japonés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1932 nace Francis Arinze, cardenal y arzobispo nigeriano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1932 nace John Clark, actor y director británico.

El 01 de noviembre de 1932 nace Alberto Salinas, dibujante de historietas argentino.

El 01 de noviembre de 1934 nace Umberto Agnelli, magnate de automóviles italiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1934 nace William Mathias, compositor británico.

El 01 de noviembre de 1935 nace Gary Player, golfista sudafricano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1935 nace Edward Said, escritor y activista palestino (m. 2003).

El 01 de noviembre de 1936 nace Joaquín Achúcarro, pianista español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1936 nace Eddie Colman, futbolista inglés (m. 1958).

El 01 de noviembre de 1939 nace Barbara Bosson, actriz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1939 nace Bernard Kouchner, médico y político francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1940 nace Barry Sadler, cantante estadounidense (m. 1989).

El 01 de noviembre de 1941 nace Alfio Basile, jugador y entrenador de fútbol argentino.

El 01 de noviembre de 1941 nace Joe Caldwell, baloncestista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1941 nace Larry Flynt, editor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1941 nace Ralph Klein, político canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1941 nace Marcia Wallace, actriz de voz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1943 nace Salvatore Adamo, cantante belga.

El 01 de noviembre de 1943 nace Alfio Basile, exfutbolista argentino, actual entrenador de fútbol.

El 01 de noviembre de 1943 nace John McEnery, actor inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1944 nace Bobby "The Brain" Heenan, manager de lucha libre profesional.

El 01 de noviembre de 1944 nace Oscar Temaru, político polinesio.

El 01 de noviembre de 1946 nace Ric Grech, músico inglés (Blind Faith, Traffic) (m. 1990).

El 01 de noviembre de 1947 nace Jim Steinman, compositor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1949 nace David Foster, músico y productor discográfico canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1949 nace Michael D. Griffin, ejecutivo de la NASA.

El 01 de noviembre de 1950 nace Robert B. Laughlin, físico estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Física en 1998.

El 01 de noviembre de 1950 nace Dan Peek, guitarrista estadounidense (America).

El 01 de noviembre de 1951 nace Ronald Bell, cantante y saxofonista estadounidense (Kool & The Gang).

El 01 de noviembre de 1951 nace Fabrice Luchini, actor francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1953 nace Jan Davis, astronauta estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1954 nace Maribel Martín, actriz española.

El 01 de noviembre de 1955 nace Beth Leavel, actriz de teatro estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1955 nace Antonio Romero Ruiz, político español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1957 nace Lyle Lovett, cantante estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1957 nace Peter Ostrum, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1957 nace Carlos Paião, cantante portugués.

El 01 de noviembre de 1958 nace Charlie Kaufman, guionista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1958 nace Jim Steinmeyer, ilusionista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1958 nace Rachel Ticotin, actriz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1959 nace Nancy Cartwright, actriz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1960 nace Fernando Valenzuela, beisbolista mexicano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1961 nace Louise Boije af Gennäs, escritor sueco.

El 01 de noviembre de 1961 nace Calvin Johnson, músico estadounidense (Beat Happening).

El 01 de noviembre de 1962 nace Irene Fargo, cantante y actriz teatral italiana.

El 01 de noviembre de 1962 nace Magne Furuholmen, músico noruego de (A-ha).

El 01 de noviembre de 1962 nace Anthony Kiedis, cantante estadounidense de rock (The Red Hot Chili Peppers).

El 01 de noviembre de 1963 nace Francisco José Alcaraz, activista social español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1963 nace Rick Allen, baterista británico (Def Leppard).

El 01 de noviembre de 1963 nace Kenny Alphin, guitarrista estadounidense (Big & Rich).

El 01 de noviembre de 1963 nace Mark Hughes, futbolista galés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1963 nace Monty Sopp, luchador profesional estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1964 nace Daran Norris, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1966 nace Barbara Becker, actriz alemana; esmujer de Boris Becker.

El 01 de noviembre de 1966 nace Mary Hansen, músico australiano de Stereolab (m. 2002).

El 01 de noviembre de 1966 nace Willie D, artista hip hop estadounidense (Geto Boys).

El 01 de noviembre de 1967 nace Tina Arena, cantante y actriz australiana.

El 01 de noviembre de 1967 nace Félix Fernández, ex futbolista mexicano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1967 nace Sophie B. Hawkins, músico estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1967 nace Carla van de Puttelaar, fotógrafa holandesa.

El 01 de noviembre de 1968 nace Park Shin-yang, actor surcoreano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1970 nace Erik Spoelstra, entrenador estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1971 nace Vikram Chatwal, hotelero indio.

El 01 de noviembre de 1971 nace Antonio Sánchez, baterista mexicano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1972 nace Toni Collette, actriz australiana.

El 01 de noviembre de 1972 nace Luis Delgado, futbolista angolano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1972 nace Paul Dickov, futbolista escocés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1972 nace Jenny McCarthy, "Playmate del año" y actriz estadounidense,

El 01 de noviembre de 1973 nace Magdalena Aicega, jugadora de hockey sobre césped argentina.

El 01 de noviembre de 1973 nace Igor González de Galdeano, ex ciclista español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1973 nace Geoff Horsfield, futbolista inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1973 nace Aishwarya Rai, actriz india.

El 01 de noviembre de 1975 nace Bo Bice, cantante estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1975 nace Scott "Skippy" Chapman, músico estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1975 nace Roberto Dueñas, ex baloncestista español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1976 nace Matt Chapman, dibujante estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1976 nace Logan Marshall-Green, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1976 nace Sebastián Peratta, futbolista argentino.

El 01 de noviembre de 1977 nace Carl Cort, futbolista inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1978 nace Danny Koevermans, futbolista neerlandés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1978 nace Rebeca Pous Del Toro, cantante y actriz española.

El 01 de noviembre de 1978 nace Mary Kate Schellhardt, actriz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1978 nace Manju Warrier, actriz india.

El 01 de noviembre de 1979 nace David Cuéllar, futbolista español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1979 nace Luís Delgado, futbolista angoleño.

El 01 de noviembre de 1979 nace Milan Dudić, futbolista serbio.

El 01 de noviembre de 1981 nace Marie Luv, actriz pornográfica estadounidense

El 01 de noviembre de 1982 nace Maria Chiara Augenti, actriz italiana.

El 01 de noviembre de 1982 nace Michael Copon, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1983 nace Václav Svěrkoš, futbolista checo.

El 01 de noviembre de 1983 nace Josh Wicks, futbolista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1984 nace Damiano Ferronetti, futbolista italiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1984 nace Natalia Tena, actriz inglesa.

El 01 de noviembre de 1984 nace Macnelly Torres, futbolista colombiano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1985 nace Dizzee Rascal, rapero inglés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1986 nace Penn Badgley, actor estadounidense.

Defunciones del 01 de noviembre
El 01 de noviembre de 0955 muere Enrique I de Bavaria.

El 01 de noviembre de 1112 muere Enrique de Borgoña.

El 01 de noviembre de 1296 muere Guillaume Durand, escritor francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1391 muere Amadeo VII de Saboya.

El 01 de noviembre de 1399 muere Juan V de Britania.

El 01 de noviembre de 1431 muere Nuno Álvares Pereira, beato y condestable de Portugal.

El 01 de noviembre de 1546 muere Giulio Romano, pintor y arquitecto italiano (n. 1449).

El 01 de noviembre de 1588 muere Jean Daurat, poeta francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1596 muere Pierre Pithou, jurista francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1629 muere Hendrick ter Brugghen, pintor holandés (n. 1588).

El 01 de noviembre de 1642 muere Jean Nicolet, explorador francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1676 muere Gisbertus Voetius, teólogo holandés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1700 muere Carlos II de España.

El 01 de noviembre de 1804 muere Johann Friedrich Gmelin, naturalista y botanico alemán (n. 1748).

El 01 de noviembre de 1814 muere Alexander Samoylov, general ruso.

El 01 de noviembre de 1865 muere John Lindley, botánico inglés (n. 1799).

El 01 de noviembre de 1869 muere José Manzano "El Nili", torero español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1888 muere Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorador ruso.

El 01 de noviembre de 1893 muere Jan Matejko, pintor polaco (n. 1838).

El 01 de noviembre de 1894 muere zar Alejandro III de Rusia.

El 01 de noviembre de 1895 muere Benito Sanz y Forés, cardenal español (n. 1828).

El 01 de noviembre de 1903 muere Theodor Mommsen, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1902.

El 01 de noviembre de 1907 muere Alfred Jarry, escritor francés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1914 muere Christopher Cradock, almirante británico (n. 1862).

El 01 de noviembre de 1921 muere Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, pintor español.

El 01 de noviembre de 1942 muere Hugo Distler, compositor alemán.

El 01 de noviembre de 1947 muere Óscar Castro Zúñiga, escritor y poeta chileno.

El 01 de noviembre de 1955 muere Dale Carnegie, escritor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1956 muere Pietro Badoglio, general y político italiano (n. 1871).

El 01 de noviembre de 1962 muere Ricardo Rodríguez, piloto mexicano de Fórmula 1.

El 01 de noviembre de 1968 muere George Papandreou, político griego.

El 01 de noviembre de 1972 muere Ezra Pound, poeta estadounidense (n. 1885).

El 01 de noviembre de 1977 muere Jake Voskuhl, baloncestista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1979 muere Mamie Eisenhower, primera dama de los Estados Unidos (n. 1896).

El 01 de noviembre de 1982 muere King Vidor, director de cine estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1982 muere James Broderick, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1983 muere Anthony van Hoboken, musicólogo holandés.

El 01 de noviembre de 1984 muere Boris Souvarine, político francés (n. 1895).

El 01 de noviembre de 1985 muere Phil Silvers, actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1986 muere Serge Garant, compositor canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1987 muere René Lévesque, primer ministro del Québec.

El 01 de noviembre de 1993 muere Severo Ochoa, bioquímico español, premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina en 1959.

El 01 de noviembre de 1994 muere Noah Beery, Jr., actor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 1999 muere Walter Payton, jugador de futbol americano.

El 01 de noviembre de 1999 muere Jean Coutu, actor canadiense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2001 muere Juan Bosch, presidente de República Dominicana.

El 01 de noviembre de 2004 muere Mac Dre, rapero estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2004 muere Terry Knight, promotor de música estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2005 muere Lola Jiménez Sillero, profesora y entrenadora de voleibol.

El 01 de noviembre de 2005 muere Michael Piller, guionista estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2006 muere William Styron, escritor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2006 muere Adrienne Shelly, actriz estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2006 muere William Styron, escritor estadounidense.

El 01 de noviembre de 2007 muere Paul Tibbets, piloto del Enola Gay.

El 01 de noviembre de 2008 muere Ymac Sumac, Cantante Peruana.


Interview with Gen Paul Tibbets

Paul Warfield Tibbets, Jr. (February 23, 1915 – November 1, 2007) was a brigadier general in the United States Air Force, best known for being the pilot of the Enola Gay, the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb in the history of warfare. The bomb, code-named Little Boy, was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. He was interviewed for documentary films about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, including The World at War (1974), Men Who Brought the Dawn (1995) and Hiroshima (2005).

Early life

Tibbets was born in Quincy, Illinois, the son of Paul Tibbets, Sr., and the former Enola Gay Haggard. He was raised in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where his father was a confections wholesaler. The family was listed there in the 1920 U.S. Federal Population Census. The 1930 census indicates that his family had relocated and was living at the time in Des Moines. Thereafter, the family moved to Miami, Florida. Tibbets graduated from Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois and later attended the University of Florida in Gainesville and was an initiated member of the Epsilon Zeta Chapter of Sigma Nu fraternity in 1934. After his undergraduate work, Tibbets had planned on becoming an abdominal surgeon. He attended the University of Cincinnati for a year and a half, before changing his mind, and enlisting in the Army Air Corps.

Early military career

On February 25, 1937, Tibbets enlisted as a flying cadet in the Army Air Corps at Fort Thomas, Kentucky. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in 1938 and received his flight commission at Kelly Field, Texas (later Kelly AFB and now the Kelly Field Annex of Lackland AFB). Tibbets was named commanding officer of the 340th Squadron, 97th Heavy Bomb Group flying B-17 Flying Fortresses in March 1942. Based at RAF Polebrook, he piloted the lead bomber for the first Eighth Air Force bombing mission in Europe on August 17, 1942, and later flew combat missions in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations until returning to the U.S. to test fly B-29 Superfortresses. "By reputation", Tibbets was "the best flier in the Army Air Force". One of those who confirmed this reputation was Dwight D. Eisenhower, for whom Tibbets served as a personal pilot at times during the war.

Atomic bombing of Japan

In September 1944, he was selected to command the project at Wendover Army Air Field, Utah, that became the 509th Composite Group, in connection with the Manhattan Project. Initially, Tibbets was unfamiliar with even the concept of an atomic bomb, and was quoted in a 1946 article in The New Yorker saying, "I will go only so far as to say that I knew what an atom was." Once they were in Wendover, Utah (the selected base for the 509th composite group), Tibbets brought his wife and family along with him.

To explain all the civilian engineers on base who were working on the Manhattan Project, he had to lie to her, by telling her that the engineers were "sanitary workers." Tibbets had to frequently fly to the Los Alamos Laboratories (in New Mexico) for briefings regarding the Manhattan Project. During one of these trips, Tibbet's wife called one of the "sanitary engineers" over to her house to un-stop a drain, for which his master's degree in physics and doctorate in applied mathematics did not necessarily qualify him. The engineer was Alan van Dyke. Van Dyke served as theoretical consultant to Oppenheimer and Szilard.

After the end of the Manhattan project, Van Dyke gave his famous "Babies in a playpen" speech. "We have cracked the indestructible atom and unleashed hell to destroy a hellish enemy. We will soon master the rest of the atom, to what end only we will be culpable. However, gentlemen and ladies, we have not created, only converted. Until we create something, we will have done nothing. Until we create, we are as impotent as babies in a playpen and the power we have unleashed is beyond our ability to control it."

Tibbets and the "sanitary engineer" laughed about it later.

On August 5, 1945, Tibbets formally named B-29 serial number 44-86292 Enola Gay after his mother. On August 6, the Enola Gay departed Tinian Island in the Marianas with Tibbets at the controls at 2:45 a.m. for Hiroshima, Japan. The atomic bomb, codenamed Little Boy, was dropped over Hiroshima at 8:15 a.m. local time.


The U.S. government apologized to Japan in 1976 after Tibbets re-enacted the bombing in a restored B-29 at an air show in Texas, complete with mushroom cloud. Tibbets said that he had not meant for the reenactment to have been an insult to the Japanese.

In 1995, he called a planned 50th anniversary exhibition of the Enola Gay at the Smithsonian Institution, which attempted to present the bombing in context with the destruction it caused, a "damn big insult.."


The film Above and Beyond (1952) depicted the World War II events involving Tibbets, with Robert Taylor starring as Paul Tibbets and Eleanor Parker as his first wife Lucy. A 1980 made-for-television movie, somewhat fictionalized, told the story of Tibbets and crew. Patrick Duffy played the part of Tibbets and Kim Darby played Lucy. The film was called, Enola Gay: The Men, the Mission, the Atomic Bomb. Tibbets was also portrayed in the films Day One and The Beginning or the End.

An interview of Paul Tibbets can be seen in the 1982 movie Atomic Cafe. He was also interviewed in the 1970s British documentary series The World at War.

Tibbets was interviewed extensively by Mike Harden of the Columbus Dispatch, and profiles appeared in the newspaper on anniversaries of the first dropping of an atomic bomb.

In a 1975 interview he said: "I'm proud that I was able to start with nothing, plan it, and have it work as perfectly as it did .... I sleep clearly every night." In March 2005, he stated, "If you give me the same circumstances, I'd do it again."

In the 2005 BBC premier, Hiroshima: BBC History of World War II, recalls the day of the Hiroshima bombing. When the bomb had hit its target, he was relieved. Tibbets stressed in the interview, "I'm not emotional. I didn't have the first [vulgarity] thought, or I would have told you what it was. I did the job and I was so relieved that it was successful, you can't even understand it."

Later life

Tibbets' marriage, to the former Lucy Wingate ended in divorce in 1955; his second wife was a French woman named Andrea Quattrehomme. In 1959, he was promoted to Brigadier General. He retired from the U.S. Air Force on August 31, 1966.

During the 1960s, Tibbets was named military attaché in India, but this posting was rescinded after protests in India regarding Tibbets' role in dropping the atomic bomb on Japan. After his retirement from the Air Force, he worked for Executive Jet Aviation, a Columbus, Ohio-based air taxi company now called NetJets. He retired from the company in 1970 and returned to Miami, Florida. He later left Miami to return to Executive Jet Aviation, having sold his Miami home in 1974. He was president of Executive Jet Aviation from 1976 until his retirement in 1987.

Tibbets briefly commanded the 393rd Bomb Squadron during his tenure in the 509th Composite Group. His grandson Colonel Paul W. Tibbets IV, USAF, (a 1989 graduate of the US Air Force Academy) was also commander of the 393rd Bomb Squadron at Whiteman AFB, Missouri, from 2005–2007 and flew the B-2 Spirit. The 393rd is one of two operational squadrons under the same unit his grandfather commanded, the 509th Bomb Wing.


Tibbets died in his Columbus, Ohio, home on November 1, 2007 at the age of 92. He had suffered small strokes and heart failure during his final years and had been in hospice care.



En Santa María del Rosario

• Santos católicos que celebran su día el 1º de noviembre:

- En el Almanaque Cubano de 1921:

La Fiesta de Todos los Santos, Santos Amable y Serino, confesores

- En el Almanaque Campesino de 1946:

La Fiesta de Todos los Santos, Santos Amable y Serino, confesores

• Natalicios cubanos:

Castillo Sánchez, Adolfo: -Nació en Sancti Spíritus el 1 de noviembre de 1864 y murió en acción de guerra en la Chorrera de Managua el 25 de octubre de 1897. Maestro de escuela en sus mocedades y general libertador cuyas acciones legendarias y valentías inauditas tuvieron por principal escenario los campos y ciudades de la bien guarnecida provincia de La Habana. Entre infinidad de acciones asaltó y tomó Madruga, San Antonio de las Vegas, Güines, Santa María del Rosario, sorprendió convoyes... Con un grupo escaso de camaradas tuvo que afrontar a un contingente de más de doscientos españoles, pereciendo en desigual acción.

El 1º de noviembre en la Historia de Cuba

• 1895 -

- La Invasión Libertadora en Oriente: Se encuentra en Mala Noche (en aquellos tiempos en el distrito de Holguín).

• 1873 -

- Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt.

Emeterio S. Santovenia en “Un Día Como Hoy” de la Editorial Trópico, 1946, páginas 617-618 nos describe los acontecimientos del 1º de noviembre de 1873 en la Historia de Cuba:

“La deposición del general Manuel de Quesada, acordada por la Cámara de Representantes el 17 de diciembre de 1869, fue sin duda el punto de partida de frecuentes discrepancias entre el Presidente de la República y el Poder Legislativo. Desde 1870 comprendió Céspedes que se hallaba amenazado por la Cámara. Mas ésta, en momentos de crisis y peligros para la causa común, en dos ocasiones, no tuvo inconveniente en ampliar las facultades del Poder Ejecutivo, poniendo en sus manos cuantas atribuciones podían ser necesarias para el mejor éxito de la Revolución. Las cosas cambiaron cuando, acentuándose de consuno los progresos de los libertadores y los enconos que dividían al Presidente y a la Cámara, la situación pareció insostenible.

“El propio Carlos Manuel de Céspedes precipitó los acontecimientos. Publicó el 24 de octubre de 1873 un manifiesto en que, expuestas en toda su amarga realidad las condiciones en que consideraba colocado al Poder Ejecutivo, requería la independencia que estimaba indispensable para su normal y satisfactorio desenvolvimiento. Envió a los diputados el 27 de octubre el documento que había dado el 24, declarando que estaba dirigido al pueblo como única y absoluta potestad que reconocía. Casi al mismo tiempo la Cámara, rodeada de unos dos mil soldados al mando de Calixto García, celebraba sesión extraordinaria en Bijagual de Jiguaní.

“Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt presidió aquella sesión, a la que asistieron los diputados Tomás Estrada Palma, Jesús Rodríguez, Juan Bautista Spotorno, Luis Victoriano Betancourt, Ramón Pérez Trujillo, Marcos García, Fernando Fornaris y Eduardo Machado. Se abrió debate sobre la conducta del Presidente de la República. Pérez Trujillo tomó la palabra y, luego de acusar a Céspedes de extralimitaciones repetidas y graves, propuso su deposición. Estrada, García, Machado, Fornaris, Spotorno, Rodríguez y Betancourt, en discursos de tonos severísimos, ampliaron las manifestaciones y apoyaron la proposición de Pérez Trujillo. Sometida ésta a votación, quedó aprobada por la voluntad de los diputados presentes, a excepción de Cisneros y Betancourt, que se abstuvo. El hombre que en 1868 había sido el primero en lanzar el grito de rebelión, el iniciador de la gran contienda en marcha, caía en la consideración de notables conciudadanos, víctima de exageraciones e intransigencias.

“A Céspedes sustituyó Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt en la Presidencia de la República. ¿Cuáles fueron las relaciones inmediatas entre ambos próceres? Las comunicaciones que con carácter oficial recibió y escribió entonces Carlos Manuel de Céspedes reflejaron perfectamente la naturaleza de aquellas relaciones, a veces justas y a veces amargas para el caudillo del 10 de octubre. La correspondencia del 14 de noviembre de 1873 dijo lo duro que para Céspedes era la orden del presidente Cisneros tendiente a que su predecesor permaneciese cerca del Gobierno, donde, según se le hizo saber, siempre encontraría las garantías necesarias y las consideraciones consiguientes al elevado cargo que acababa de desempeñar. Céspedes protestó de tal disposición, tachándola de restrictiva de sus derechos de ciudadano libre, y se decidió incontinenti a buscar el medio hábil y decoroso de salir del trance a que así era sometido sin que lo pidiese su voluntad ni lo exigiera su deber.”


Cuarta Migración: Siglo VI d. C. Primera migración de taínos desde Las Antillas y se ubicaron fundamentalmente en la zona oriental de Cuba, alrededor de la actual Banes. Introdujeron el maíz, la yuca, el tabaco y muchos utensilios de la economía agroalfarera. Poseían rituales y tenían una organización social.


Disidentes cubanos preocupados por condición de Alcides Rivera y Rolando Ferrer

Llevan más de 30 días en huelga de hambre y en cualquier momento puede ocurrir un desenlace 31 de octubre de 2011

El opositor cubano Alcides Rivera Rodríguez.

Foto cortesía de Idania Yanes Contreras.

La presidenta de la Coalición Central Opositora, Idania Yanes Contreras, afirmó que su esposo, el huelguista Alcides Rivera Rodríguez, “está en estado grave con palpitaciones, ardor al orinar, dolor de cabeza, entumecimiento en las manos, frialdad en las piernas y una tos persistente”.

Yanes Contreras dijo que los análisis que le están realizando a Alcides en el Hospital Arnaldo Milián, en Santa Clara, “son pruebas de cuidados intensivos, pero que se los están haciendo en la Sala de Medicina B, Cama 11, porque lo iban a pasar a terapia intermedia y ella se negó”.

“Han pasado varios neumólogos por acá; están muy preocupados por la tos y no sabemos qué es lo que pueda tener, porque ellos no hablan claro (…) primero le dan el parte al médico, o sea, a la Seguridad del Estado, y luego nos dicen lo que ellos entiendan”, señaló.

Desde Santa Clara, el opositor Jorge Luis García Pérez, “Antúnez”, manifestó que la condición del huelguista Rolando Ferrer Espinosa “es bastante delicada, teniendo en cuenta que según los propios criterios médicos, está a punto de contraer una acidosis metabólica”.

“Antúnez” agregó que Rolando “se encuentra recibiendo desde anoche oxígeno artificial, tiene mucho decaimiento y una fuerte pérdida de peso”.

“Estamos muy preocupados, porque lleva más de 30 días en huelga de hambre y en cualquier momento puede ocurrir un desenlace”, indicó.

Havana Glue: un documental sobre el consumo de alcohol en Cuba

La ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas es el tema del documental Havana Glue, de la realizadora Lupe Alfonso. Según los estudiosos, el fenómeno está relacionado con el nivel de agobio y desesperación de los sectores mayoritarios de la población cubana.

Aleida lleva su apellido como disfraz de Halloween

Aleida Guevara March, con semblante funerario y sed de constante alabanza, en una guerra campal contra la naturaleza humana, hastía hablando del sueño del hombre nuevo, olvidando el insomnio del hombre actual.

Juan Juan Almeida/ Especial para 31 de octubre de 2011

Foto: Reuters

Aleida (Aliusha) Guevara March, de cabellos castaño rojizo y ojos color café, es de esos cubanos que como vastedad cultural agregada, actúa y habla como extranjera. Excéntrica y desenfadada, es un engendro insatisfecho que, inventándose un linaje con dimensiones de ciclope, disfruta aplastando a su paso cualquier opinión divergente.

Divorciada de Julio Machín, y madre de dos bellas hijas. Su primera frustración comenzó con el nacimiento de sus tres hermanos menores, perdiendo así el dulce encanto de ser hija única. En 1967, cuando aun no cumplía 7 años, su padre murió en Bolivia; y su madre, Aleida March, bonita y joven aún, después de tragar amargos buches (tema para otro comentario), decidió continuar con su vida y elige una nueva pareja. Valentín, un buen hombre, creo yo. Los entonces grandes amigos, heroicos y verde olivos, todos le dieron la espalda, excepto Ramiro Valdés. No obstante la pequeña Aliusha decidió plegarse al amparo protector de tío Fidel.

Jugó al peligro de sentirse Ícaro, y la vida la premió en su justa dimensión. Cuando Aliusha ya era Aleida, y estudiaba en una escuela militar, un naufragio sentimental la arrastró a engordar al punto que hasta sus más fieles condiscípulos y amigos de los “Camilitos”, le llamaban Moby-Dick. Resulta que la linda Aleida, creyó comprar con lo más tierno de su amor al entonces desconocido Luis Alberto Rodríguez López Callejas, quien como insaciable galán se trastornó con el poder y despachó a la Guevara por un amor más “seguro, más histórico y heroico”, y de todos conocidos, el de Deborah Castro Espín.

La señora Guevara March, devino en doctora, oportunista de sangre y ninfómana de acción, posee atractivo especial para hombres famosos a quienes vende como helado la mítica foto de un padre. Así lo hizo en Nicaragua con el General fusilado, por el mundo con un periodista italiano, en La Habana con un actor hollywoodense y un empresario argentino. A todos les abrió las piernas, y las puertas del poder. Con arrogante actitud y estrafalario atuendo, lucra actuando como clon de una decadente doctrina que es simplemente una estafa. Su dignidad se mide en dólares; y su lealtad, en privilegios.

Cuando aprendiendo a manejar mató a un pobre ser humano, el sistema judicial cubano fue obligado a no mirar. La filantropía es linda, pero falsa.

Aleida Guevara March, con semblante funerario y sed de constante alabanza, en una guerra campal contra la naturaleza humana, hastía hablando del sueño del hombre nuevo, olvidando el insomnio del hombre actual. Cuando pongo mucho esmero, logro encontrar algo bueno hasta en un vulgar delincuente; no así en esta mujer que a ritmo de vino tinto insiste en continuar inflando su figura de farsante, usando como brillante escalera a un poseso padre al que únicamente vio en contadas ocasiones.